Renate Viebahn-Hänsler (a) , Olga Sonia León Fernández (b) & Ziad Fahmy (a)
a Medical Society for the Use of Ozone in Prevention and Therapy, Iffezheim/Baden-Baden, D-76473, Germany
b Pharmacy and Food Institute, University of Havana, Havana, 10 400, Cuba
The low-dose ozone concept with its moderate oxidative stress represents an ideal hormesis strategy. Dose-response and concentration-effect relationships in the context with speciﬁc applications allow one to ﬁx concentration ranges with therapeutical beneﬁt. Based on the well-known reaction mechanisms of ozone, its biochemical and pharmacological effects, international guidelines have to be deﬁned concerning physiological and ozone resistant materials, indications, applications and the effective concentration and dosage range in dependence on the speciﬁc indications. Following the international regulations of ozone concentrations outdoors and indoors, as working site concentrations by WHO (World Health Organization) and in conformance with the Medical Device Directives (MDD) for quality assurance and control, some European Medical Societies for the Use of Ozone have set up a draft for the essential requirements for the treatment procedures,including:(a)production of Medical Ozone; reactivity of O3 and ozone-resistant materials; (b) ozone-free surroundings (WHO regulations) by the integration of effective catalytic systems; (c) ozone-resistant and physiologically indifferent materials used in disposables for MAH, intra-articular, intramuscular and other topical injections (for rectal insufﬂation, topical treatment as transcutanous gas bath and/or disinfection); (d) medical device directives for safety of the patient; (e) ozone measurement as requirement for concentrations and dosages; and, (f) concentration, dosages, and treatment frequency are liste din dependence on the indication and disease as well as on the underlying mechanism of action.
The opinions and conclusions expressed in this article are those of the authors and contributors, and do not necessarily reﬂect those of the International Ozone Association, the editors, Editorial Board, or Taylor & Francis. Readers are to make their own decisions with regard to the work presented. These medical articles are enclosed, as in the past, as a service to the members of the IOA interested in medical applications.
Address correspondence to Renate Viebahn-Hänsler, Nordring 8, D-76473 Iffezheim/Baden-Baden, Germany. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org